Efforts continued for the improvement of animal productivity, development of newer animal vaccines and diagnostics, molecular characterization of indigenous breeds of livestock and development of animal byproducts. The brief achievements of the programme are as follows:
ET and related areas
- Embryo transfer technology was standardized in cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep camel and equines which includes optimization of in vitro fertilization of oocytes, culture of embryos, micro manipulation and embryo cloning using nuclear transfer, sexing through PCR, reproductive ultrasonography and endocrine profiles for augmenting fertility.
- A number of biologicals viz. FSH, LH, PRL were developed through biochemical procedures and they have utility in the ETT programme.
- ETT demonstration activities were undertaken at the farmer’s level and a number of ET cattle and buffalo calves (more than 2000) were produced under ONBS programme. Crossbred Sahiwal calves were evaluated genetically for their use in National Artificial Insemination programme.
- Ovum Pick Up technology for the production of large number of offspring in a short period was standardized in cattle and buffalo. The effort will help in reducing the cost of production of ETT calves.
- The technology for the production of transgenic animal was standardized and 24 lines of transgenic mice (model animal) were developed, comprising more than 120 founder mice.
- A novel mouse strain with knocked kappa casein gene was developed through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. This genetically modified mouse strain is a useful as small animal model for evaluating the transgenic approaches directed towards modification of milk of farm animals.
- Enhanced green fluorescent protein expressing “green mouse” lines were generated using embryo culture based technology. The transgene expression pattern during the entire period of mouse development was studied.
- Biotechnological options was utilized for enhancing nutritive value and utilization of agro-industrial byproducts and other forages for improving rumen fermentation.
- Anaerobic fungi from the faeces of wild ruminants and rumen liquor of domestic ruminants were isolated, characterized and their enzyme profile, ability to increase in vitro digestibility of feed and in vivo utilization of nutrients in buffaloes were studied.
- Bacterial strains isolated from Chinkara (Gazella gazella) was found to have a significantly higher digestibility, true digestibility and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) digestibility in comparison to other bacterial isolates.
- New reactor designs were developed for large scale bioconversion of lignocellulose residue to animal feed. A reactor of 1200 ltr capacity with optimum conversion of lignin and minimum utilization of cellulose using a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was found to be suitable for bioconversion.
- Standards were also developed for estimation of mycotoxins in animal feed and distributed to various laboratories for routine analysis.
Disease diagnostics and vaccine development
- A technology for the production of recombinant anthrax vaccine was developed and transferred to M/s Panacea Biotech Ltd. Phase-I /II human clinical trial studies of recombinant anthrax vaccine have been completed. Efforts are on to commercialize the vaccine for human use and also to conduct animal studies of recombinant anthrax vaccine for its use in livestock.
- A complete health package of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) disease was developed which includes diagnostics and vaccine. The technology of inactivated tissue culture vaccine for IBR was transferred to industry and vaccine is available in the market.
- An ELISA based diagnostic test for peste des petis ruminants virus (PPR) was developed and the technology was transferred for commercialization
- A nested PCR assay for detection and identification of bovine mycobacterial strains was developed.
- An attenuated buffalopox virus vaccine was developed and its field trial is underway. A novel PCR based diagnostic for rapid diagnosis of Buffalopox virus (BPV) has also been standardized.
Molecular genetics and conservation
- Molecular characterisation of various indigenous breeds of cattle, buffaloes and goats were carried out using DNA fingerprinting and microsatellite typing methods.
- Microsatellite analysis of ten goat breeds were carried out using various microsatellite markers and their phylogenetic tree was constructed to establish the genetic relatedness.
- A Buffalo Genomics programme was initiated, with emphasis on identification of specific genes controlling traits of economic importance viz. genes responsible for disease resistance, productivity and fertility augmentation in phased manner: Efforts are on to sequence the whole buffalo genome.
Animal byproducts and leather biotechnology
- The Leather Technology Mission for biotechnology oriented components like carcass utilisation, animal care and cleaner technologies was supported and a total of 24 carcass utilisation plants were established.
- Reconstituted collagen sheet (RCS) for wound and burn healing application was developed from the serosa layer of intestine and Achillus tendon of cattle. The technology has been transferred to industry.
- Lipase enzymes produced from soil bacteria, fungi and yeast were used for degreasing operations in leather industry as a substitute for existing lipases.
- Leather binder was prepared from blood serum on a pilot scale. The glaze finishing efficacy of these binder samples was found to be comparable with the binder available in the market.
- Molecular characterisation of indigenous poultry breeds were carried out using RAPD, RFLPetc techniques.
- Specific monoclonal antibodies viz. IgM, IgG and IgA were produced in chicken. An ELISA was developed to measure the IgM response in chicken vaccinated against infectious bronchitis and new castle disease virus.
- Projects on demonstration cum technology transfer on poultry layers were implemented.
- Vaccine for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis developed by BAIF Foundation, Pune and was transferred to the Hoechst Roussel Vet India Ltd.
- Technology transfer for Reconstituted collagen sheet of bovine origin developed by CLRI, Chennai and transferred to the Eucare Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Chennai .
- Diagnostic test for Peste des petis ruminants virus (PPRV ) developed by TANUVAS, Chennai was transferred to Indian Immunologicals, Hyderabad
- Recombinant protective antigen technology against Anthrax developed by Jawaharlal Nehru University and transferred to the Panacea Biotec ltd .